Al Smith (1873–1944)

Governor of New York, presidential candidate

Anti-Catholic sentiment was only one among many reasons for Smith's defeat as the Democratic candidate for president in 1928, but many Catholics interpreted the event as a resounding disapproval of their full status as Americans.

Photo: Al Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration (public domain)




C. Finan, Alfred E. Smith: The Happy Warrior

O. Handlin, Al Smith and His America

R. Slayton, Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith