James Cardinal Gibbons (1834–1921)

Bishop of Richmond, Virginia, 1872–1877

Archbishop of Baltimore, 1877–1921

The second American cardinal, Gibbons was for many the public face of Catholicism during his long tenure in Baltimore, the place of his birth. His impact on the Church in America was enormous. Among the events in which he played a prominent part were the Americanist controversy, the founding of Catholic University of America, and the intervention in Rome in favor of the Knights of Labor.




J.T. Ellis, The life of James Cardinal Gibbons: Archbishop of Baltimore, 1834-1921

T. Spalding, The Premier See : A History of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, 1789-1989